Many novice photographers are faced with the question of how to shoot this or that view in the best quality and most beautiful way. When working with light, depth of field, when shooting in low light, shooting moving objects, knowing how to correctly set the exposure coupler and what result you can get will help.
It is necessary
Camera, lens, tripod
The term "diaphragm" comes from the Greek word for "septum", its other name is aperture. The diaphragm is a special device built into the lens to regulate the diameter of the hole that allows light to enter the matrix. The ratio of the diameter of the lens aperture to the focal length is called aperture ratio.
F stands for f-number, which is the reciprocal of the lens aperture. Changing F by one stop, we get a change in the diameter of the aperture hole by 1, 4 times. And the amount of light falling on the matrix will change 2 times.
The smaller the aperture, the deeper the depth of field of the imaged area, i.e. an area in sharp focus around the subject. You can set the required aperture, depending on the model of the camera, manually through the camera menu by rotating the aperture ring on the lens or the control wheel on the camera body.
The lower the F number, the larger the aperture, which means that the diameter of the lens opening becomes wider and more light enters the sensor. The maximum aperture is f1.4, f2.8, etc. For a 50mm lens, the depth of field will be maximum at f22, and at f1.8, the sharpness will be small. For example, when shooting a portrait, in order to get a clear face and a blurred background, the aperture should be set to a small f2.8. If the diaphragm is clamped on the contrary, i.e. set a larger aperture value, then the predominant part of the frame will be in focus.
The length of time during which the light rays hit the matrix is called the shutter speed. The camera shutter provides it. Aperture and shutter speed are collectively referred to as exposure pair. The increase in sensitivity is inversely proportional to the exposure, i.e. if the sensitivity is doubled, the exposure should also be halved. To measure shutter speed, fractions of a second are used: 1/30, 1/60, 1/125 or 1/250 s.
For moving subjects, a fast shutter speed should be used to avoid wiggling. To calculate the required shutter speed, you need to know at what focal length you will be shooting. For example, the lens is 24-105 mm, it is extended by half - about 80 mm. And since the maximum shutter speed should not exceed the value inversely proportional to the focal length, the shutter speed should be set no longer than 1/80 s. Short exposures are used to "freeze" movement: bird flight, drops falling, athlete's running, etc.
For shooting at night or at dusk, a slow shutter speed is better. It will help to correctly expose the frame. When shooting with slow shutter speeds, there is a high probability of blurring the frame, in this case it is worth using optical stabilization or a tripod. Such an exposure will allow you to shoot interesting scenes - a "fiery trail" during evening and night shooting of moving cars.
When shooting water, the shutter speed is very important. With a short shutter speed, the water will resemble glass. When shooting slow rivers and streams, it is best to use shutter speeds between 1/30 s and 1/125 s. Rushing streams or waves crashing against rocks should be shot at a short shutter speed of 1/1000 s, because it will allow you to work out fine splashes in detail. For shooting fountains and waterfalls, a long shutter speed is suitable - it will allow you to convey the movement of water.