Norman Lockyer is the scientist who discovered helium in the world. After all, it was he who in 1868, studying the emitted light of atoms in the prominences of the sun, noticed a number of unknown spectral lines. Numerous attempts to obtain such lines in laboratory conditions did not bring success, from which Lockyer concluded that he had discovered a new element, which he called helium, from the Greek. helios - Sun. Helium was first isolated on Earth in 1895 by William Ramsay from the radioactive mineral cleveite.
Half of all helium is located in the earth's crust, especially in the granite shell. So, if you need helium, go to the mine, closer to the granite layers, take a couple of cylinders with you and pump it out of the free accumulation of natural gases, or from the gases of uranium springs. A method of obtaining helium at home is impossible, even if you buy special equipment, the necessary elements, catalysts and a special suit, you will still not be successful. None of the school textbooks and manuals tell you how to get helium on your own. For this, there are special processing and production plants.
In industry, helium is obtained from helium-containing gases. Helium can be separated from other gases by the deepest cooling method, given that all other gases liquefy faster than helium, because it has the lowest temperature of transformation into a liquid -269 ° C. So, take a natural gas cylinder and a pulsating apparatus (a special chamber for cooling and collecting gas). Now fill the semi-closed containers alternately with gas supplied from the nozzles. By heating the gas, the generated heat passes into the cooling medium, releasing the formed gas from the closed chambers into the cooling medium, and so on again and again until the gas cools down to a certain temperature, and until all other gases are removed from the chambers and only helium remains.
Liquid helium can be made in the same way. It is obtained at a critical temperature of 5.2 K. It should be noted that liquid helium is the only liquid that does not freeze under normal conditions, that is, at the lowest temperature it does not solidify, but when the pressure changes, for example, at 25 atmospheres, can change its state of aggregation.