A harness is a device that is worn on one or more horses to be harnessed to a cart. Reindeer and dog harnesses are the prototypes of the modern horse-drawn carriage.
Depending on the way the horse is used, the harnesses are divided into two main types: saddle-pack (if the horse is used for riding) and the harness itself, when the horse is a draft force. In this case, it consists of a collar, shorts, harnesses, saddle.
The clamp is the main part of the harness. As standard, it consists of three parts: pliers, clamps and lining. If the clamp is intended for a shank harness, then it has two tugs, and when harnessing with strings, horse lobes are used.
The clamp size and shape, as well as strength, depend on the pliers. The root part of the trunk of hard trees (maple, elm, birch) is considered the best material for making ticks. Clamps weigh from 3 kg for driving horses to 10 for draft horses.
In the drawbar harness, a shoe is used instead of a collar. But when comparing a boot with a collar, the advantage is recognized for the latter. The main disadvantage of the shorts is that it puts pressure on a smaller area on the horse's body, which causes scuffs on the horse's chest and withers. In addition, it absorbs moisture and, when dried, warps and becomes very hard.
To transfer the traction force from a horse to a cart in a shank harness, yoke tugs and shafts (if the harness is shank) are used. They are intended to soften the force of sudden jolts, therefore they must be elastic and very strong. Tugs are made from the backbone of rawhide.
When using a shank harness, a saddle must be included in the harness. Its configuration depends on the horse's back and can be "standing", "humpbacked" and "flat". A carpenter is usually placed under the saddle, which is made from matting for summer and dense felt for other seasons.
When working on rough terrain, a harness must be used in a harness. It serves to hold the braking of the cart when stopping, descending a slope or trotting. The main part of the harness is the rim strap that surrounds the horse's body and attaches to the yoke.